God has done everything He can to save mankind, but free-will is the issue, therefore the reality is; Vs 22 - vessels of wrath are unbelievers and in vs. 23 - vessels of mercy are believers.
The vessel of mercy is elected by God through faith in Jesus Christ and is predestined to bring glory to God in time.
The word “vessel” always means a container. It is empty until it is filled and once Paul was filled with 40 things and Bible doctrine then he became the Lord’s representative in a very unique way.
In Romans 9 vessels are used extensively in connection with the plan of God. Vessel of mercy (believer) and vessel of wrath (unbeliever). Honourable vessel (PV) and common vessel (NV).
In 2CO 4:7 vessels were used to provide an analogy between Bible doctrine resident in the soul and capacity for life among those who are mature believers.
Containing something which is the greatest of all treasures is the 40 things with maximum doctrine resident in the soul and from this doctrine comes great capacity for life.
In 2 Ti 2:20,21 vessels are used to set up a contrast between the believer who is mature and the believer who is in reversionism.
The mature believer is mentioned as a vessel of silver, hand crafted by God who is the silver-smith, PRO 25:4
PRO 25:4 Take away the dross (contaminants) from the silver, And there comes out a vessel for the smith;
Vessels are related to category #2 love, which is the love of right man/right woman in 1TH 4:4.
Before you possess the vessel of another you have to be able to possess your own vessel set apart from the world and in obedience to the word of God.
The woman is an empty pot. There is a great field for learning for men in how to possess a woman, how to be the ruler over a woman and to do it in a way which is honourable - 1PE 3:7.
“Weaker vessel” has to do with the function of the soul. When a person is designed by God to be a responder it means that in being a responder you are weaker and you depend upon someone else to whom you can respond.
Shattered vessels are used to describe personal judgements from God.
Ps 31:12 I am forgotten as a dead man, out of mind, I am like a broken vessel.
JER 22:28 "Is this man Coniah a despised, shattered jar? Or is he an undesirable vessel? Why have he and his descendants been hurled out And cast into a land that they had not known?
A shattered vessel holds nothing; it is no longer a container; it has no capacity. Shattered means you are on your way to the sin unto death.
Apostate communicators of doctrine can also be reversionistic and be described that way - JER 25:34
JER 25:34 "Wail, you shepherds, and cry; And wallow in ashes, you masters of the flock; For the days of your slaughter and your dispersions have come, And you shall fall [be broken] like a choice vessel.
The shattered vessel is used for personal discipline; it usually indicates the proximity of the sin unto death, the last stage of discipline for reversionism.
The shattered vessel is also used for the fifth cycle of discipline. The northern kingdom Israel - Hosea 8:8,9
The southern kingdom Judah is also described in their 5th cycle of discipline - JER 51:34.
The Gentile nations in the Tribulation are also so described - Psalm 2:9.
PSA 2:9 ‘Thou shalt break them with a rod of iron, Thou shalt shatter them like earthenware.’
Whether it’s at the point of Gospel hearing or learning doctrine after salvation the difference between an honourable vessel, a dishonourable vessel, and a broken vessel is volition toward God’s perfect word.